In The Atlas of Middle Earth (see Pages 52-53), four islands are shown as being off the coast of Middle Earth: Tol Fuin, Himling, Tol Morwen (fragments of Beleriand), and Meneltarma (the remnant of Atalante).
Thread: What happened with Beleriand?
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The Dark Lands lay south and east of Endor (Middle Earth's continent). Melkor obtained breeding stock from this place, namely the Talking Apes (australopithecines), which he initially bred with Elves to make the first Orcs; and the Were-worms of the Last Desert (roughly Australia), which he necessarily used for gene-splices only. Later Melkor used Gorillas obtained from the Heats of the South. Also incorporated into Orcs were Elves, Dwarves, Hobbits, Woses (Neanderthals), and various varieties of Man Proper. Melkor probably also used monsters called Mewlips from the Far East.
Incidentally, I have finally purchased a newer version of The Silmarillion, and there's no scale of miles (not unexpected) and no 'extra' mountains about Tol Galen.